18. Study Questions Copy

The reasons are framed within the context of a debate at the Persian court, and it seems unlikely that Herodotus would have had a transcript of the conversation that happened there. We do not have Persian sources.

Revenge on the Athenians; economic expansion; the desire of some Greeks, such as Hippias, for an invasion.

Again, according to Herodotus, Artabanus (Xerxes’ uncle) advises caution, pointing to previous Persian failures. He is ignored.

There are grossly exaggerated, either as the result of mistaken calculations or to make the Greek resistance and subsequent victories seem more heroic.

They had to set up supply chains, including cutting a canal through the Athos peninsula and bridging the Hellespont.


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