13. Study Questions Copy

You might wish to mention the way that the army was organised; Roman notions of a ‘defensive offensive’; the ability to summon up large numbers of men to fight. 

Marius removed the need for soldiers to own property, thus allowing many more men to join up. The promise of land granted at the end of service meant soldiers looked to their commanders to ensure this land was granted. This gave rise to power struggles between generals who essentially had their own private armies. So, you could argue that these reforms led to civil war. 

Claudius probably invaded Britain because he needed to win a quick victory on his accession (his nephew Caligula had just been assassinated). It seems unlikely that Britain held much interest in Rome after Caesar’s visits. It was not seen as possessing useful resources or strategic value. 


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